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Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 13. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy682. [Epub ahead of print]

A Multi-Center Case-Control Study of the Effect of Acute Rejection and Cytomegalovirus Infection on Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP) in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London, Canada.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Canada.
3
Multiorgan Transplant Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London, Canada.
4
Department of Medicine, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
5
CHUM (Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal), Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
6
Kidney Transplant Program, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada.
7
Kidney Transplant Program, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
8
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada.
9
CHUM (Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal), Universite´ de Montre´al, Montre´al, Canada.
10
CHUQ (CHU de Québec-Université Laval), Quebec, Canada.
11
University Health Network, Multiorgan Transplant Program, University of Toronto, Canada.

Abstract

Background:

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this case-control study, we determined the association between post-transplant PCP and 3 variables: cytomegalovirus infection, allograft rejection and prophylaxis.

Methods:

Eight transplantation centers participated. For each case (SOT recipient with PCP), 3-5 controls (SOT recipients without PCP) were included. Controls were matched to the cases based on transplant center, type of allograft and date of transplantation (± 6 months).

Results:

We enrolled 53 cases and 209 controls. Transplant types included kidney (n=198), heart (n=30), liver (n=15), kidney-pancreas (n=14) and lung (n=5). PCP occurred beyond 12 months after transplantation in 43 (81.1%) cases. Thirty-four cases (64.1%) required admission to ICU and 28 (52.8%) had mechanical ventilation. Allograft failure occurred in 20 (37.7%) cases and 14 (26.9%) died. No patient developed PCP prophylaxis breakthrough. The proportion of female sex (p= 0.009), kidney dysfunction (p=0.001), cardiac diseases (p=0.005), diabetes mellitus (p=0.03), allograft rejection (p=0.001), CMV infection (p=0.001) and severe lymphopenia (p=0.001) were significantly higher in cases. In logistic regression model, CMV infection (adjusted OR: 4.6, 95% CI: 2.0-10.5) and allograft rejection (adjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5- 6.1) significantly increased the likelihood of PCP.

Conclusions:

PCP was mostly a late-onset disease occurring after complete course of prophylaxis particularly among patients with CMV infection or allograft rejection. PCP is associated with significant allograft loss. Extended prophylaxis targeting recipients with allograft rejection or CMV infection may reduce the risk of PCP.

PMID:
30107568
DOI:
10.1093/cid/ciy682

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