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Shock. 2018 Oct;50(4):377-380. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0000000000001212.

Minimum Quality Threshold in Pre-Clinical Sepsis Studies (Mqtipss): An International Expert Consensus Initiative for Improvement of Animal Modeling in Sepsis.

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Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology in the AUVA Research Center, Vienna, Austria.
Rhode Island Hospital and Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.
Institute of Surgical Research, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama.
Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Northwell Health, Manhasset, New York.
University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida.
Division of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
AUVA Trauma Center, Vienna, Austria.
Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.
Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, California.
Institute of Clinical and Experimental Trauma-Immunology, University Hospital of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
Medical University Vienna, Department of Medicine 1, Vienna, Austria.
Center for Inflammation Research, VIB, Ghent, Belgium.
University Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada.
Institute of Anaesthesiological Pathophysiology and Process Development, University Hospital of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
Bloomsbury Institute of Intensive Care Medicine, University College London, UK.
The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York.
Division of Infectious Diseases, and Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Chagnsha, Hunan, China.
Division of Critical Care Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.


Preclinical animal studies precede the majority of clinical trials. While the clinical definitions of sepsis and recommended treatments are regularly updated, a systematic review of preclinical models of sepsis has not been done and clear modeling guidelines are lacking. To address this deficit, a Wiggers-Bernard Conference on preclinical sepsis modeling was held in Vienna in May, 2017. The goal of the conference was to identify limitations of preclinical sepsis models and to propose a set of guidelines, defined as the "Minimum Quality Threshold in Preclinical Sepsis Studies" (MQTiPSS), to enhance translational value of these models. A total of 31 experts from 13 countries participated and were divided into six thematic Working Groups: Study Design, Humane modeling, Infection types, Organ failure/dysfunction, Fluid resuscitation, and Antimicrobial therapy endpoints. As basis for the MQTiPSS discussions, the participants conducted a literature review of the 260 most highly cited scientific articles on sepsis models (2002-2013). Overall, the participants reached consensus on 29 points; 20 at "recommendation" and nine at "consideration" strength. This Executive Summary provides a synopsis of the MQTiPSS consensus. We believe that these recommendations and considerations will serve to bring a level of standardization to preclinical models of sepsis and ultimately improve translation of preclinical findings. These guideline points are proposed as "best practices" for animal models of sepsis that should be implemented. To encourage its wide dissemination, this article is freely accessible on the Intensive Care Medicine Experimental and Infection journal websites. In order to encourage its wide dissemination, this article is freely accessible in Shock, Infection, and Intensive Care Medicine Experimental.

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