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Mol Neurobiol. 2019 May;56(5):3193-3210. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1300-9. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Telmisartan Protects a Microglia Cell Line from LPS Injury Beyond AT1 Receptor Blockade or PPARγ Activation.

Author information

1
Microarray Core, Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Dr, MSC 4435, Bethesda, MD, 20892-4435, USA.
2
Laboratory of Neuroprotection, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, SE402 Med/Dent, 3900 Reservoir Road, Washington, DC, 20057, USA.
3
Laboratory of Neuroprotection, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, SE402 Med/Dent, 3900 Reservoir Road, Washington, DC, 20057, USA. juan.saavedra@georgetown.edu.

Abstract

The Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB) Telmisartan reduces inflammation through Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activation. However, in a mouse microglia-like BV2 cell line, imitating primary microglia responses with high fidelity and devoid of AT1 receptor gene expression or PPARγ activation, Telmisartan reduced gene expression of pro-injury factors, enhanced that of anti-inflammatory genes, and prevented LPS-induced increase in inflammatory markers. Using global gene expression profiling and pathways analysis, we revealed that Telmisartan normalized the expression of hundreds of genes upregulated by LPS and linked with inflammation, apoptosis and neurodegenerative disorders, while downregulating the expression of genes associated with oncological, neurodegenerative and viral diseases. The PPARγ full agonist Pioglitazone had no neuroprotective effects. Surprisingly, the PPARγ antagonists GW9662 and T0070907 were neuroprotective and enhanced Telmisartan effects. GW9226 alone significantly reduced LPS toxic effects and enhanced Telmisartan neuroprotection, including downregulation of pro-inflammatory TLR2 gene expression. Telmisartan and GW9662 effects on LPS injury negatively correlated with pro-inflammatory factors and upstream regulators, including TLR2, and positively with known neuroprotective factors and upstream regulators. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) of the Telmisartan and GW9662 data revealed negative correlations with sets of genes associated with neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders and toxic treatments in cultured systems, while demonstrating positive correlations with gene sets associated with neuroprotection and kinase inhibition. Our results strongly suggest that novel neuroprotective effects of Telmisartan and GW9662, beyond AT1 receptor blockade or PPARγ activation, include downregulation of the TLR2 signaling pathway, findings that may have translational relevance.

KEYWORDS:

Angiotensin receptor blockers; Inflammation; Neuroprotection, microglia; PPARγ; TLR2

PMID:
30105672
PMCID:
PMC6677563
DOI:
10.1007/s12035-018-1300-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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