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Nutrients. 2018 Aug 11;10(8). pii: E1070. doi: 10.3390/nu10081070.

Effects of Adherence to a Higher Protein Diet on Weight Loss, Markers of Health, and Functional Capacity in Older Women Participating in a Resistance-Based Exercise Program.

Author information

1
Matrix Medical Net, New York, NY 10011, USA. galbreathmelyn@gmail.com.
2
Exercise Science Program, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. bcampbell@usf.edu.
3
Exercise and Sports Science Department, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, TX 76513, USA. plabounty@umhb.edu.
4
Department of Physical Therapy, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC 27506, USA. bunnj@campbell.edu.
5
Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA. Jacqueline_Dove@baylor.edu.
6
United States Special Operations Command, Preservation of the Force and Family, Human Performance, MacDill AFB, Tampa, FL 33621, USA. Travis.Harvey@socom.mil.
7
Department of Health, Kinesiology, & Sport, The University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA. ghudson@southalabama.edu.
8
Department of Nutrition & Metabolism, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. jeanguti@utmb.edu.
9
Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA. klevers@gwu.edu.
10
Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. fego.galvan@gmail.com.
11
School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, Saint Charles, MO 63301, USA. AJagim@lindenwood.edu.
12
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. lori.greenwood@tamu.edu.
13
Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. mbcooke@swin.edu.au.
14
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. mgreenwood26@tamu.edu.
15
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. crasmussen@tamu.edu.
16
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. rbkreider@tamu.edu.

Abstract

Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65.9 ± 4.7 years; 78.7 ± 11 kg, 30.5 ± 4.1 kg/m², 43.5 ± 3.6% fat) were randomly assigned to an exercise-only group (E), an exercise plus hypo-energetic higher carbohydrate (HC) diet, or a higher protein diet (HP) diet. Participants followed their respective diet plans and performed a supervised 30-min circuit-style resistance exercise program 3 d/wk. Participants were tested at 0, 10, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear model (GLM) statistics as well as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of changes from baseline with [95% confidence intervals]. Results revealed that after 14 weeks, participants in the HP group experienced significantly greater reductions in weight (E -1.3 ± 2.3, [-2.4, -0.2]; HC -3.0 ± 3.1 [-4.5, -1.5]; HP -4.8 ± 3.2, [-6.4, -3.1]%, p = 0.003), fat mass (E -2.7 ± 3.8, [-4.6, -0.9]; HC -5.9 ± 4.2 [-8.0, -3.9]; HP -10.2 ± 5.8 [-13.2, ⁻7.2%], p < 0.001), and body fat percentage (E -2.0 ± 3.5 [-3.7, -0.3]; HC -4.3 ± 3.2 [-5.9, -2.8]; HP -6.3 ± 3.5 [-8.1, -4.5] %, p = 0.002) with no significant reductions in fat-free mass or resting energy expenditure over time or among groups. Significant differences were observed in leptin (E -1.8 ± 34 [-18, 14]; HC 43.8 ± 55 [CI 16, 71]; HP -26.5 ± 70 [-63, -9.6] ng/mL, p = 0.001) and adiponectin (E 43.1 ± 76.2 [6.3, 79.8]; HC -27.9 ± 33.4 [-44.5, -11.3]; HP 52.3 ± 79 [11.9, 92.8] µg/mL, p = 0.001). All groups experienced significant improvements in muscular strength, muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, markers of balance and functional capacity, and several markers of health. These findings indicate that a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition compared to a higher carbohydrate diet in older females.

KEYWORDS:

diet; elderly; exercise; functional capacity; sarcopenia

PMID:
30103509
PMCID:
PMC6115985
DOI:
10.3390/nu10081070
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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