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Toxins (Basel). 2018 Aug 11;10(8). pii: E327. doi: 10.3390/toxins10080327.

Feasibility of A Novel On-Site Detection Method for Aflatoxin in Maize Flour from Markets and Selected Households in Kampala, Uganda.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. wacooalex@gmail.com.
2
Yoba for Life Foundation, Hunzestraat 133-A, 1079 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. wacooalex@gmail.com.
3
Department of Nursing, Muni University, P.O. Box 725 Arua, Uganda. wacooalex@gmail.com.
4
Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology Centre, Product Development Directory, Uganda Industrial Research Institute, P.O. Box 7086 Kampala, Uganda. dwendiro@gmail.com.
5
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kyambogo University, P.O. Box 1 Kyambogo, Uganda. snanyonga1@gmail.com.
6
Department of Biochemistry and Sports Science, School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7082 Kampala, Uganda. jfh69fuuna@gmail.com.
7
Yoba for Life Foundation, Hunzestraat 133-A, 1079 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. wilbert.sybesma@yoba4life.com.
8
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. r.kort@vu.nl.
9
Yoba for Life Foundation, Hunzestraat 133-A, 1079 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. r.kort@vu.nl.
10
TNO, Microbiology and Systems Biology, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist, The Netherlands. r.kort@vu.nl.

Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high demand for affordable and accessible methods for on-site detection of aflatoxins for appropriate food safety management. In this study, we validated an electrochemical immunosensor device by the on-site detection of 60 maize flour samples from six markets and 72 samples from households in Kampala. The immunosensor was successfully validated with a linear range from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 11 ± 0.3 µg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.7 µg/kg. The maize flour samples from the markets had a mean total aflatoxin concentration of 7.6 ± 2.3 µg/kg with approximately 20% of the samples higher than 10 µg/kg, which is the maximum acceptable level in East Africa. Further down the distribution chain, at the household level, approximately 45% of the total number contained total aflatoxin levels higher than the acceptable limit. The on-site detection method correlated well with the established laboratory-based HPLC and ELISA-detection methods for aflatoxin B₁ with the correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.98, respectively. This study shows the feasibility of a novel on-site detection method and articulates the severity of aflatoxin contamination in Uganda.

KEYWORDS:

ELISA; HPLC; aflatoxins; households; immunosensor; maize; markets

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