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Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Aug 1;108(2):256-265. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy120.

Effect of combined use of a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on glycemic control in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-controlled trial.

Author information

1
Research Center for Nutrition and Food Safety, Institute of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chongqing Medical Nutrition Research Center, Chongqing, China.
2
Department of Health Supervision, Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Shenyang Joint Logistic Support Center, Shenyang, China.
3
Laboratory for Lipid Medicine and Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
4
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
5
Department of Health Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
6
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Abstract

Background:

The combined effect of a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) diet and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation on patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not known.

Objective:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an LCHP diet combined with ω-3 (LCHP+ω-3) on glycemic control in patients with T2D.

Design:

In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-controlled trial, 122 newly diagnosed participants with T2D were randomly assigned to receive a high-carbohydrate, low-protein diet with low ω-3 PUFAs [control (CON)], an LCHP, ω-3, or LCHP+ω-3 diet for 12 wk. The ratio of carbohydrate to protein was 42:28 in the LCHP and LCHP+ω-3 diet and 54:17 in the CON and ω-3 diet. The participants were given 6 g fish oil/d (containing 3.65 g docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid/d) in the ω-3 and LCHP+ω-3 diet groups or 6 g corn oil/d (placebo) in the CON and LCHP diet groups.

Results:

Compared with the CON diet group, greater decreases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting glucose were observed in all of the other 3 diet groups at 12 wk. Of note, HbA1c reduction in the LCHP+ω-3 diet group (-0.51%; 95% CI: -0.64%, -0.37%) was greater than that in the LCHP (P = 0.03) and ω-3 (P = 0.01) diet groups at 12 wk. In terms of fasting glucose, only the LCHP+ω-3 diet group showed a significant decrease at 4 wk (P = 0.03 compared with CON). Moreover, the reduction in fasting glucose in the LCHP+ω-3 diet group (-1.32 mmol/L; 95% CI: -1.72, -0.93 mmol/L) was greater than that in the LCHP (P = 0.04) and ω-3 (P = 0.03) diet groups at 12 wk.

Conclusions:

The LCHP+ω-3 diet provided greater effects on HbA1c and fasting glucose and faster effects on fasting glucose than both the LCHP and ω-3 diets, indicating the potential necessity of combining an LCHP diet with ω-3 PUFAs in T2D control. This trial was registered at chictr.org.cn/ as ChiCTR-TRC-14004704.

PMID:
30101332
DOI:
10.1093/ajcn/nqy120

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