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BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 10;8(8):e021943. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021943.

Efficacy and tolerance of early administration of tranexamic acid in patients with cirrhosis presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the EXARHOSE study).

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Groupe Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, SAMU 94, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France.
EA-4390 (Analysis of Risk in Complex Health Systems), Université Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil, France.
Hôpital Universitaire Jean Verdier, Service de Réanimation, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Bondy, France.
UMR 7244, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université Paris 13, Bobigny, France.
EA 7376 (Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing, CEpiA), Université Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil, France.
Groupe Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, Département de Santé Publique, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France.
Groupe Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France.
Groupe Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, Pharmacie Centrale, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France.
Département de Médecine d'urgence et SAMU-SMUR, Hôpital Marc Jacquet, Melun, France.



The management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is challenging in patients with cirrhosis, as it is responsible for severe complications and high mortality rates. Tranexamic acid (TXA) may help control the bleeding by counterbalancing cirrhosis-related hyperfibrinolysis. Still, there is a lack of unbiased data to conclude on its efficacy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in the early treatment of acute UGIB in patients with cirrhosis.


This study is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, for adult patients with cirrhosis presenting with an acute UGIB and allocated to one of two arms: TXA or placebo (saline). Physicians from emergency mobile services, emergency departments (EDs) or intensive care units (ICUs) can include patients. Besides study intervention, standard care for UGIB will be performed as recommended. Intervention will consist an intravenous infusion of 10 mL of TXA (1 g) or saline, immediately followed by three identical intravenous infusions over 8 hours each (total dose of 4 g of TXA or 40 mL of placebo over 24 hours). Main analyses will be conducted in intention to treat on every patient included, then in modified intention to treat on patients with underlying lesion of portal hypertension visualised by endoscopy. The main objective is to show efficacy of TXA until day 5 on a composite criterion (bleeding control, rebleeding episodes and mortality). Secondary objectives aim at showing the efficacy of TXA on each individual component of the main outcome measure and others at 6 weeks and later (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure, cirrhosis-specific complications, length of stay in ICU and in hospital, safety and tolerance of TXA, liver transplantation). Included patients will be followed up to 1 year after inclusion.500 patients will be necessary to show a reduction in the prevalence of the primary outcome from 30% to 18% with a bilateral alpha risk of 5% and a power of 80%.


Ethical approval has been obtained from the Comité de Protection des Personnes Ile-de-France 1 (CPP-IDF1). Results will be disseminated via publications in peer-review medical journals and scientific forums.


This protocol is based on the latest version, as established on 11 October 2017 and validated by the IRB CPP Ile-de-France 1.




cirrhosis; emergency; gastroenterology; tranexamic acid; upper gastro-intestinal bleeding

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