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J Pain. 2018 Dec;19(12):1491-1503. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.07.005. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

The Pain Course: 12- and 24-Month Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-Delivered Pain Management Program Provided With Different Levels of Clinician Support.

Author information

1
eCentreClinic, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: blake.dear@mq.edu.au.
2
eCentreClinic, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
3
Discipline of Clinical Psychology, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
4
Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

Little is known about the long-term outcomes of emerging Internet-delivered pain management programs. The current study reports the 12- and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 490) of an Internet-delivered pain management program, the Pain Course. The initial results of the trial to the 3-month follow-up have been reported elsewhere. There were significant improvements in disability, depression, anxiety, and pain levels across 3 treatment groups receiving different levels of clinician support compared with a treatment as the usual control. No marked or significant differences were found between the treatment groups either after treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. The current study obtained long-term follow-up data from 78% and 79% of participants (n = 397) at the 12-month and 24-month follow-up marks, respectively. Clinically significant decreases (average percent reduction; Cohen's d effect sizes) were maintained at the 12- and 24-month follow-ups for disability (average reduction ≥27%; d ≥ .67), depression (average reduction ≥36%; d ≥ .80), anxiety (average reduction ≥38%; d ≥ .66), and average pain levels (average reduction ≥21%; d ≥ .67). No marked or consistent differences were found among the 3 treatment groups. These findings suggest that the outcomes of Internet-delivered programs may be maintained over the long term. PERSPECTIVE: This article presents the long-term outcome data of an established Internet-delivered pain management program for adults with chronic pain. The clinical improvements observed during the program were found to be maintained at the 12- and 24-month follow-up marks. This finding indicates that these programs can have lasting clinical effects.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic pain; Internet; anxiety; cognitive-behavioral therapy; depression; long-term outcomes; online; randomized controlled trial

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