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Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Nov;119:1264-1275. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.08.019. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of T6 synthetic compound encapsulated in yeast-derived β-(1,3)-d-glucan particles.

Author information

1
Postgraduate Program in Biological Sciences, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
2
Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
3
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Coimbra, Portugal; Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
4
Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
5
Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: farosa@uem.br.
6
Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: mhsarragiotto@uem.br.
7
Postgraduate Program in Biological Sciences, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: cvnakamura@uem.br.
8
Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: afrubira@uem.br.
9
Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: gmpereira2@uem.br.
10
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: rmanadas@ff.uc.pt.
11
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Coimbra, Portugal; Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: ajleitao@ff.uc.pt.
12
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Coimbra, Portugal; Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: olga@ci.uc.pt.
13
Postgraduate Program in Biological Sciences, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address: tunakamura@uem.br.
14
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Coimbra, Portugal; Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: mcsousa@ci.uc.pt.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to encapsulate a synthetic compound, the 4-[(2E)-N'-(2,2'-bithienyl-5-methylene)hydra-zinecarbonyl]-6,7-dihydro-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazin-7-one (T6) in glucan-rich particles mainly composed by the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GPs) and to study their individual and combined activity on Leishmania infantum. The possible mechanism of action of T6 was also investigated. Our results showed the activity of T6 compound in both promastigote (IC50 = 2.5 μg/mL) and intracellular amastigote (IC50 = 1.23 μg/mL) forms. We also found activity against intracellular amastigote forms (IC50 = 8.20 μg/mL) when the T6 compound was encapsulated in GPs. Another interesting finding was the fact that T6 encapsulated in GPs showed a significant decrease in J774A1 macrophage toxicity (CC50 ≥ 18.53 μg/mL) compared to the T6 compound alone (IC50 = 2.27 μg/mL). Through electron microscopy and biochemical methodologies, we verified that the activity of T6 in promastigote forms of L. infantum was characterized by events of cell death by apoptosis like increased ROS production, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation. We conclude that T6 can be considered a promising anti-Leishmania compound, and that the use of GPs for drug encapsulation is an interesting approach to the development of new effective and less toxic formulations.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Drug delivery; Leishmaniasis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Yeast cell wall particles; β-(1,3)-d-glucan

PMID:
30096400
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.08.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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