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J Endocr Soc. 2018 Jul 9;2(8):970-973. doi: 10.1210/js.2018-00169. eCollection 2018 Aug 1.

Does Sex Bias Play a Role for Dissatisfied Patients With Hypothyroidism?

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Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.
Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.


The current state of the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease cannot be separated from the larger context of women's health for the following reasons: (1) the disproportionate incidence and prevalence of functional and structural thyroid diseases among women vs men; (2) the role of thyroid health on fertility, pregnancy, and postpartum; and (3) the challenge posed in managing the nonspecific symptoms of functional thyroid disease in the context of menopause. Here, we explore the hypothesis that sex bias has played a role in the management of thyroid diseases historically and has extended into the modern medical era. Once knowledge gaps that may have resulted from sex bias are recognized, we can strive to overcome this bias and develop better treatments to improve patient outcomes universally.


dismissal; gender; hysteria; medical history; thyroid disease; women’s health

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