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PLoS One. 2018 Aug 9;13(8):e0201953. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201953. eCollection 2018.

Trends of HIV incidence and prevalence among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China: Nine consecutive cross-sectional surveys, 2008-2016.

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Institute for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing Center for Preventive Medical Research, Beijing, China.



Sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) increased markedly in China during the past decade. HIV incidence is a critical indicator in HIV surveillance and we use a HIV-1 BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) to examine the incidence among MSM in Beijing from 2008 to 2016. Risk factors related to recent HIV infection were also assessed.


Consecutive cross-sectional surveys on MSM were conducted yearly from 2008 through 2016. Demographic and behaviors data were collected. HIV status was determined and HIV positive specimens were tested for recent infection using BED-CEIA. Specimens with ODn values≤0.8 were considered recently infected, HIV incidence rates and prevalence were then calculated. Risk factors associated with recent HIV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariable logistic regression.


From 2008 to 2016, the numbers of eligible participants in the nine consecutive years ranged from 472 to 616. All the 261 eligible HIV-positive specimens were subjected to recent HIV infection testing. HIV prevalence ranged from 5.0% (3.3%-6.8%) to 10.2% (7.8%-12.7%), and incidence ranged from 1.57% (0.19%-2.95%) to 6.63% (3.65%-9.61%). MSM who never or sometimes used condoms during anal sex with men in the past 6 months (aOR = 1.515, 95%CI: 1.016-2.257, p = 0.041), or having syphilis infection (aOR = 1.561, 95%CI: 0.946-2.575, p = 0.081) were more likely to be recently infected with HIV. Being a Beijing resident (aOR = 0.409, 95%CI: 0.212-0.790, p = 0.008), or having only one male anal sex partner in the past 6 months (aOR = 0.467, 95%CI: 0.220-0.994, p = 0.048) were associated with a lower risk for recent HIV infection.


The HIV incidence fluctuated among MSM in Beijing. Unprotected anal sex, having multiple sex partners, being a non-registered Beijing resident and having a syphilis infection play important roles in the recent HIV infection. Effective intervention measures for HIV and syphilis control and prevention should be continuously strengthened.

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