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Support Care Cancer. 2019 Mar;27(3):921-925. doi: 10.1007/s00520-018-4380-1. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

External validation of three risk stratification rules in patients presenting with pulmonary embolism and cancer.

Author information

1
Medical University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Charleston, SC, USA.
2
University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA.
3
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
4
University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.
5
Idaho State University College of Pharmacy, Meridian, ID, USA.
6
University of Connecticut/Hartford Hospital Evidence-Based Practice Center, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT, 06102, USA.
7
University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA. christine.kohn@hhchealth.org.
8
University of Connecticut/Hartford Hospital Evidence-Based Practice Center, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT, 06102, USA. christine.kohn@hhchealth.org.

Abstract

Numerous risk stratification rules exist to predict post-pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality; however, few were designed for use in cancer patients. In the EPIPHANY registry, adapted versions of common rules (the Hestia criteria, Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index [PESI], and simplified PESI [sPESI]) displayed high sensitivity for prognosticating mortality in PE patients with cancer. These adapted rules have yet to be externally validated. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the performance of an adapted Hestia criteria, PESI, and sPESI for predicting 30-day post-PE mortality in patients with cancer. We identified consecutive, adults presenting with objectively confirmed PE and cancer to our institution (November 2010 to January 2014). The proportion of patients categorized as low or high risk by these three risk stratification rules was calculated, and each rule's accuracy for predicting 30-day all-cause mortality was determined. Of the 124 patients with PE and active cancer identified, 25 (20%) experienced mortality at 30 days. The adapted Hestia criteria categorized 23 (19%) patients as low risk, while exhibiting a sensitivity of 88% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 68-97%), a negative predictive value NPV of 87% (95% CI = 65-97%), and a specificity of 20% (95% CI = 13-30%). A total of 38 (31%) and 30 (24%) patients were low risk by the adapted PESI and sPESI, with both displaying sensitivities of 92% and NPVs > 93%. Specificities were 36% (95% CI = 27-47%) and 28% (95% CI = 20-38%) for PESI and sPESI. In our external validation, the adapted Hestia, PESI, and sPESI demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity for 30-day PE mortality in patients with cancer. Larger, prospective trials are needed to optimize strategies for risk stratification in this population.

KEYWORDS:

Mortality; Prognosis; Pulmonary embolism; Risk assessment; Severity of illness index

PMID:
30090992
DOI:
10.1007/s00520-018-4380-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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