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J Family Med Prim Care. 2018 Mar-Apr;7(2):346-356. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_336_17.

Biopsychosocial etiology of premenstrual syndrome: A narrative review.

Author information

Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.



Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most prevalent disorders at reproductive age and has a negative impact on emotions and performance of women. Since various factors play a role in the development of this syndrome, the present study was aimed to examine biopsychosocial etiology of PMS in the form of a narrative review.

Materials and Methods:

Relevant studies were collected based on the three subjects of biological, psychological, and social etiologies during 1987-2015. First, Medical Subject Headings was used to specify the relevant keywords such as biological, psychological, social, and premenstrual syndrome which were used to search Internet databases including Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, PMDR, Ovid, Magiran, and Iranmedex, which led to collection of 1 book and 26 Persian and English articles.


The results were classified into three sections. In the biological section, the effect and role of sex hormones and their changes in PMS were examined. In the psychological section, hypotheses on PMS and the role of psychological problems in the development of PMS were examined. In the social section, the role and social, religious, and cultural position of women and its relationship with PMS were examined.


To reduce negative experiences of PMS, it is recommended that girls should be provided with necessary scientific information on puberty and premenstrual health. The results showed that paying attention to the complaint on premenstrual symptoms is significant in women's comprehensive assessment, and it plays an essential role in diagnosing psychological and physical annoying diseases.


Biopsychosocial; etiology; premenstrual syndrome

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