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Tibial Anterior Compartment Syndrome.

Authors

Kiel J1, Kaiser K1.

Source

StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019-.
2019 Apr 2.

Author information

1
University of Kentucky

Excerpt

Compartment syndrome occurs when the tissue pressure within a given compartment exceeds the perfusion pressure of the arterial supply resulting in ischemia to the muscles and nerves of the compartment. The etiology is varied; however, most commonly it is related to acute trauma or overuse syndrome. In the leg, this can occur in any of the four compartments: anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, or deep posterior. Compartment syndrome can occur in other places in the body as well including the thigh, forearm, hand, and wrist. The muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg contain the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, and fibularis tertius. In general, the muscles are responsible for dorsiflexion and participate in eversion and inversion of the foot and ankle. Specifically, the tibialis anterior dorsiflexes and inverts the foot. The extensor digitorum longus extends digits 2 to 5 and dorsiflexes the ankle while the extensor hallucis longus is responsible for extension of the 1st digit and also dorsiflexes the ankle. The fibularis tertius aids in dorsiflexion and eversion. The leg's anterior compartment is supplied by the deep fibular nerve (L4, L5, S1), which is a branch of the common fibular nerve. Blood flow is supplied by the anterior tibial artery which is a branch of the popliteal artery and transitions to the dorsalis pedis artery as it crosses into the foot. The borders of the anterior compartment are the anterior tibia, anteromedial fibula, interosseous membrane, and the anterior intermuscular septum.

Copyright © 2019, StatPearls Publishing LLC.

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