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J Anal Methods Chem. 2018 Jun 14;2018:2834049. doi: 10.1155/2018/2834049. eCollection 2018.

A Convenient and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbadox- and Olaquindox-Related Residues in Swine Muscle and Liver Tissues.

Zhang H1, Qu W1, Tao Y2, Chen D2, Xie S1, Huang L1,2, Liu Z1,2, Pan Y1,2, Yuan Z1,2.

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MOA Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.
National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.


This paper presents a convenient and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of carbadox and olaquindox residues, including desoxyolaquindox (DOLQ), desoxycarbadox (DCBX), quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA), 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA), and the glycine conjugates of QCA and MQCA (namely, QCA-glycine and MQCA-glycine, resp.) in swine muscle and liver tissues. Tissue samples were extracted with 2% metaphosphoric acid in 20% methanol and cleaned up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a mixed-mode anion-exchange column (Oasis MAX). Analysis was performed on a C18 column by detection with mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) of the six analytes were determined to be 0.01 μg·kg-1 to 0.25 μg·kg-1, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.02 μg·kg-1 to 0.5 μg·kg-1. The total recoveries of the six analytes in all tissues were higher than 79.1% with the RSD% less than 9.2%. The developed method can determine the real residue level of QCA and MQCA, whether they are present in free form or as glycine conjugates in tissues, together with the carcinogenic desoxy metabolites DCBX and DOLQ with high recovery. Therefore, this method was suitable for routine analysis of residue control programmes and the residue depletion study of CBX and OLQ on swine.

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