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Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2018 Aug 4;17(1):112. doi: 10.1186/s12933-018-0755-3.

Low muscle quality in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with visceral fat accumulation.

Author information

1
Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 B-5, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.
2
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Kawasaki Hospital Kobe, 3-3-1, Higashiyama-Cho, Hyogo-ku, Kobe, 652-0042, Japan.
3
Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 B-5, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. hitoshin1127@endmet.med.osaka-u.ac.jp.
4
Department of Gastroenterology, Kawasaki Hospital Kobe, 3-3-1, Higashiyama-Cho, Hyogo-ku, Kobe, 652-0042, Japan.
5
Department of Laboratory and Physiology, Kawasaki Hospital Kobe, 3-3-1, Higashiyama-Cho, Hyogo-ku, Kobe, 652-0042, Japan.
6
Department of Adipose Management, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2-B, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.
7
Department of Metabolism and Atherosclerosis, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2-B, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although obesity-related type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and sarcopenia in the elderly have been increasing worldwide, the associations among visceral fat accumulation, skeletal muscle indices (mass, strength, and quality) and cardiovascular diseases in T2DM remain poorly investigated.

METHODS:

We enrolled 183 Japanese T2DM inpatients (126 men, 57 women; mean age 64.7 ± 12.6 years, ± SD). The estimated-visceral fat area (eVFA) and skeletal muscle mass were measured by each device using bioelectrical impedance analysis method. We also measured grip strength by dynamometer and motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV). We analyzed the difference in skeletal muscle indices between T2DM patients with and without visceral fat accumulation, and examined the impact of skeletal muscle indices on cardiovascular diseases in patients with visceral fat accumulation.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of sarcopenia defined by the Consensus of Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia and low skeletal muscle mass were both lower in the visceral fat accumulation (+) group than in (-) group. However, the prevalence of weak hand grip strength was similar in the visceral fat accumulation (-) and (+) groups, indicating that considerable patients with visceral fat accumulation had weak grip strength in spite of fair skeletal muscle mass. Muscle quality [grip strength (kg)/arm muscle mass (kg)] was significantly lower in patients with visceral fat accumulation. Multiple regression analysis identified eVFA, MCV and sex as significant and independent determinants of muscle quality. In visceral fat accumulation (+) group, the patients with low muscle quality had longer duration of diabetes, lower eGFR, higher serum adiponectin, lower MCV and higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, compared to the patients with high muscle quality. Finally, sex- and age-adjusted models showed significant association between low muscle quality and cardiovascular diseases in all subjects (odds ratio 2.28, p = 0.012), especially in patients with visceral fat accumulation (odds ratio 2.72, p = 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS:

T2DM patients with visceral fat accumulation had low muscle quality, and patients with low muscle quality were more affected with cardiovascular diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular disease; Grip strength; Motor nerve conduction velocity; Muscle quality; Sarcopenia; Skeletal muscle index; Type 2 diabetes; Visceral fat accumulation

PMID:
30077183
PMCID:
PMC6076400
DOI:
10.1186/s12933-018-0755-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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