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Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 Sep 17;57(38):12529-12533. doi: 10.1002/anie.201807402. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Lowering Molecular Symmetry To Improve the Morphological Properties of the Hole-Transport Layer for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

Wang X1, Zhang J1,2, Yu S1, Yu W1, Fu P1, Liu X1,2, Tu D1,2, Guo X1, Li C1.

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State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, The Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), Dalian, 116023, P. R. China.
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.


Inspired by the structural feature of the classical hole-transport material (HTM), Spiro-OMeTAD, many analogues based on a highly symmetrical spiro-core were reported for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, these HTMs were prone to crystallize because of the high molecular symmetry, forming non-uniform films, unfavorable for the device stability and large-area processing. By lowering the symmetry of spiro-core, we report herein a novel spirobisindane-based HTM, Spiro-I, which could form amorphous films with high uniformity and morphological stability. Compared to the Spiro-OMeTAD-based PSCs, those containing Spiro-I exhibit similar efficiencies for small area but higher ones for large area (1 cm2 ), and especially much higher air stability (retaining 80 % of initial PCE after 2400 h storage without encapsulation). Moreover, the Spiro-I can be synthesized from a cheap starting material bisphenol A and used with a small amount for the device fabrication.


hole-transporting materials; perovskite solar cells; spiro compounds; symmetry; synthesis design


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