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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Oct;25(30):30044-30055. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-2857-6. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Use of coliphages to investigate norovirus contamination in a shellfish growing area in Republic of Korea.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
2
Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
3
N-Bio, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dongguk University, 1 Pildong-ro, Jung-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
6
Department of Seafood Science and Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 38 Cheondaegukchi-gil, Tongyeong-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea.
7
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. gko@snu.ac.kr.
8
N-Bio, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. gko@snu.ac.kr.
9
Center for Human and Environmental Microbiome, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. gko@snu.ac.kr.

Abstract

A number of severe norovirus outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated shellfish have been reported recently. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of coliphage densities to determine their efficacy as fecal indicators of enteric viruses, including noroviruses, in water samples collected from a shellfish growing area in Republic of Korea over a period of approximately 1 year. Male-specific and somatic coliphages in water samples were analyzed using the single agar layer method, and norovirus genogroups I and II, which infect mainly humans, were analyzed using duplex reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Male-specific and somatic coliphages were detected widely throughout the study area. Several environmental parameters, including salinity, precipitation, temperature, and wind speed were significantly correlated with coliphage concentrations (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentrations of male-specific coliphages were positively correlated with the presence of human noroviruses (r = 0.443; P < 0.01). The geospatial analysis with coliphage concentrations using a geographic information system revealed that densely populated residential areas were the major source of fecal contamination. Our results indicate that coliphage monitoring in water could be a useful approach to prevent norovirus contamination in shellfish.

KEYWORDS:

Geographic information system; Male-specific coliphages; Microbial source tracking; Norovirus; Shellfish; Somatic coliphages

PMID:
30076551
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-018-2857-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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