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Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Apr;56(4):2952-2963. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1270-y. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Hypothyroidism and Cognitive Disorders during Development and Adulthood: Implications in the Central Nervous System.

Author information

1
Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración (CARE UC), Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
2
Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración (CARE UC), Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. ninestrosa@bio.puc.cl.
3
Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. ninestrosa@bio.puc.cl.
4
Centro de Excelencia en Biomedicina de Magallanes (CEBIMA), Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile. ninestrosa@bio.puc.cl.
5
CARE UC Biomedical Research Center, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Bernardo O'Higgins 340, P. O. Box 114, -D, Santiago, Chile. ninestrosa@bio.puc.cl.

Abstract

Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical function in fundamental signaling of the body regulating process such as metabolism of glucose and lipids, cell maturation and proliferation, and neurogenesis, to name just a few. THs trigger biological effects both by directly affecting gene expression through the interaction with nuclear receptors (genomic effects) and by activating protein kinases and/or ion channels (short-term effects). For years, a close relationship between the THs hormones and the central nervous system (CNS) has been described, not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. A deficit in thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) is observed in the hypothyroid condition, generated by a iodine deficiency or an autoimmune response of the body. In the hypothyroid condition, several cellular deregulation and alterations have been described in dendrite spine morphology, cell migration and proliferation, and impaired synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, among others. The aim of this review is to describe the role of the thyroid hormones with focus in brain function and neurodegenerative disorders.

KEYWORDS:

Brain function; Neurodegenerative disease; Thyroid hormones

PMID:
30073507
DOI:
10.1007/s12035-018-1270-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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