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Pediatr Res. 2018 Jul;84(Suppl 1):78-88. doi: 10.1038/s41390-018-0075-z.

Application of Neonatologist Performed Echocardiography in the Assessment and Management of Neonatal Heart Failure unrelated to Congenital Heart Disease.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Goryeb Children's Hospital, Morristown, NJ, USA.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Clinique des Grangettes, Chêne Bougeries, Switzerland.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Møre and Romsdal Hospital Trust, Ålesund, Norway.
5
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of, Oslo, Norway.
6
Department of Cardiology and Center for Cardiological Innovation, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
7
Department of Paediatrics, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway.
8
The Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
9
Departments of Pediatrics and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
10
Department of Neonatology, The Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
11
Department of Pediatrics, The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
12
Department of Neonatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Amalia Children's Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. willem.deboode@radboudumc.nl.

Abstract

Neonatal heart failure (HF) is a progressive disease caused by cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular abnormalities. The most common cause of neonatal HF is structural congenital heart disease, while neonatal cardiomyopathy represents the most common cause of HF in infants with a structurally normal heart. Neonatal cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases manifesting with various morphological and functional phenotypes that affect the heart muscle and alter cardiac performance at, or soon after birth. The clinical presentation of neonates with cardiomyopathy is varied, as are the possible causes of the condition and the severity of disease presentation. Echocardiography is the selected method of choice for diagnostic evaluation, follow-up and analysis of treatment results for cardiomyopathies in neonates. Advances in neonatal echocardiography now permit a more comprehensive assessment of cardiac performance that could not be previously achieved with conventional imaging. In this review, we discuss the current and emerging echocardiographic techniques that aid in the correct diagnostic and pathophysiological assessment of some of the most common etiologies of HF that occur in neonates with a structurally normal heart and acquired cardiomyopathy and we provide recommendations for using these techniques to optimize the management of neonate with HF.

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