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Urol Oncol. 2019 May;37(5):318-323. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2018.05.024. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Mechanisms and funding opportunities in genitourinary cancer clinical research.

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Professor of Medicine, Knight Cancer Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR. Electronic address:


Progress in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of genitourinary cancers is dependent on well-conducted clinical trials. The complexity and cost of clinical research continues to escalate, and success is dependent on adequate funding. Opportunities to fund such research include federal, industry, and private sources. The mechanisms whereby larger trials are conducted include contract research organizations, publically- and privately funded consortia, and the National Clinical Trials Network of the National Cancer Institute. The National Clinical Trials Network is the prime venue for investigators to conduct independent, phase III trials in the United States.


Clinical trials; Cooperative Groups; Funding; NCTN; Urologic cancers

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