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J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Sep 5;66(35):9309-9317. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03343. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Chemical Compositions of Cold-Pressed Broccoli, Carrot, and Cucumber Seed Flours and Their in Vitro Gut Microbiota Modulatory, Anti-inflammatory, and Free Radical Scavenging Properties.

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Department of Nutrition and Food Science , University of Maryland , College Park , Maryland 20742 , United States.
Institute of Food and Nutraceutical Science, School of Agriculture and Biology , Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Shanghai 200240 , China.
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health , Beijing Technology & Business University (BTBU) , Beijing 100048 , China.


Carrot, cucumber, and broccoli seed flours were extracted with 50% acetone and evaluated for their phytochemical compositions along with their potential gut microbiota modulating, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory capacities. Nine and ten compounds were detected in the broccoli and carrot seed flour extracts, with kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside and glucoraphanin as the primary component of each, respectively. All three seed flour extracts enhanced total number of gut bacteria and altered the abundance of specific bacterial phylum or genus in vitro. The broccoli seed flour extract had the greatest relative DPPH radical scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbing capacity, and hydroxyl radical (HO) scavenging capacity values of 85, 634, and 270 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/g, respectively. Carrot seed flour extract showed the greatest ABTS•+ scavenging capacity of 250 μmol TE/g. Also, three seed flour extracts suppressed LPS induced IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA expressions in J774A.1 cells. The results might be used to promote the value-added utilization of these vegetable seed flours in improving human health.


LC−MS; anti-inflammation; antioxidant; microbiota; seed flour

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