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Perit Dial Int. 2019 Jan-Feb;39(1):25-34. doi: 10.3747/pdi.2017.00207. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Survival and Kidney Transplant Incidence on Home versus In-Center Hemodialysis, Following Peritoneal Dialysis Technique Failure.

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Division of Nephrology, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, United States.
Division of Nephrology, UC Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, United States.
NxStage Medical, Inc., Lawrence, MA, United States
Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.



Peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique failure is often accompanied by complications that increase risks of hospitalization and death. Planned transition to hemodialysis may improve outcomes. Transitioning patients from PD to home hemodialysis (HHD) may improve continuity of lifestyle and facilitate delivery of more frequent treatment.


We analyzed United States Renal Data System (USRDS) data to compare the incidence of death and kidney transplant in patients who transferred from PD to HHD and matched patients who transferred from PD to in-center HD (IHD). We used Fine-Gray regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of death and transplant for HHD versus IHD.


We identified 521 patients who transferred from PD to HHD. Survival in HHD patients was 89.1% at 1 year and 80.5% at 2 years. In intention-to-treat analysis, the HR of death for HHD versus matched IHD patients was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65 - 0.90). In subsets of non-Medicare and Medicare patients, corresponding HRs were 0.57 (95% CI 0.43 - 0.75) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.75 - 1.13), respectively. Kidney transplant incidence in HHD patients was 10.6% at 1 year and 21.0% at 2 years. In modified intention-to-treat analysis, the HR of transplant for HHD versus matched IHD patients was 1.36 (1.14 - 1.61).


Transfer to HHD after PD technique failure was rare, but associated with lower risk of death and higher incidence of transplant than transfer to IHD. Heterogeneity in relative risks by Medicare coverage suggests uncertainty about the magnitude of benefit. Still, these data suggest that clinical outcomes after PD technique failure can be improved.


Death; Medicare; home hemodialysis; kidney transplant


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