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Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2018 Oct;52:172-181. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2018.06.008. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Modulation of cortical circuits by top-down processing and arousal state in health and disease.

Author information

1
Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Rose F. Kennedy Center, 1410 Pelham Parkway South Room 203, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address: renata.brito@einstein.yu.edu.
2
Department of Psychology, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Electronic address: ezagha@ucr.edu.
3
Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Rose F. Kennedy Center, 1410 Pelham Parkway South Room 203, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.
4
Ernst Struengmann Institute for Neuroscience in Cooperation with Max Planck Society, Deutschordenstra├če 46, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address: martin.vinck@esi-frankfurt.de.

Abstract

In this review, we explore how contextual modulations of sensory processing are implemented within the local cortical circuit. We focus on contextual influences of global arousal state (e.g. how alert am I?), sensory predictions (e.g. which stimuli do I expect?), and top-down attention (what is relevant to me?). We review recent literature suggesting that these operations are implemented throughout sensory cortices, and are mediated by excitatory and inhibitory local circuits. By focusing on the circuit mechanisms of contextual modulation operations, we may begin to understand how mutations in GABAergic interneurons and alterations in neuromodulatory signaling lead to specific deficits of information processing in neuropsychiatric disease.

PMID:
30064117
DOI:
10.1016/j.conb.2018.06.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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