Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Genome Biol Evol. 2018 Aug 1;10(8):2110-2129. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evy157.

Molecular Adaptations for Sensing and Securing Prey and Insight into Amniote Genome Diversity from the Garter Snake Genome.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia.
3
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State.
4
Institute for Genomics, Biocomputing and Biotechnology, Mississippi State University, Starkville.
5
Department of Biology, Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine, Temple University.
6
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Cell and Systems Biology, Centre for the Analysis of Genome Evolution & Function, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
7
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia.
8
Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
9
Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Parasitology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
10
Department of Biology, New York University Abu Dhabi, Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
11
School of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado.
12
Department of Biological Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA.
13
Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA.
14
Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
15
College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
16
Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
17
Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University.
18
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Medical Genetics, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
19
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University.
20
Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Change Initiative, University of Notre Dame.
21
The McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis.
22
Department of Biology, University of Virginia.
23
Department of Biology, Utah State University.

Abstract

Colubridae represents the most phenotypically diverse and speciose family of snakes, yet no well-assembled and annotated genome exists for this lineage. Here, we report and analyze the genome of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, a colubrid snake that is an important model species for research in evolutionary biology, physiology, genomics, behavior, and the evolution of toxin resistance. Using the garter snake genome, we show how snakes have evolved numerous adaptations for sensing and securing prey, and identify features of snake genome structure that provide insight into the evolution of amniote genomes. Analyses of the garter snake and other squamate reptile genomes highlight shifts in repeat element abundance and expansion within snakes, uncover evidence of genes under positive selection, and provide revised neutral substitution rate estimates for squamates. Our identification of Z and W sex chromosome-specific scaffolds provides evidence for multiple origins of sex chromosome systems in snakes and demonstrates the value of this genome for studying sex chromosome evolution. Analysis of gene duplication and loss in visual and olfactory gene families supports a dim-light ancestral condition in snakes and indicates that olfactory receptor repertoires underwent an expansion early in snake evolution. Additionally, we provide some of the first links between secreted venom proteins, the genes that encode them, and their evolutionary origins in a rear-fanged colubrid snake, together with new genomic insight into the coevolutionary arms race between garter snakes and highly toxic newt prey that led to toxin resistance in garter snakes.

PMID:
30060036
PMCID:
PMC6110522
DOI:
10.1093/gbe/evy157
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center