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Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2018 Aug;17(8):795-804. doi: 10.1080/14740338.2018.1505861.

Drug-induced liver injury: a safety review.

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a Instituto de Investigación Biomédica-IBIMA , Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Universidad de Málaga , Málaga , Spain.
b Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas CIBERehd , Málaga , Spain.
c Servicio de Farmacología Clínica, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga-IBIMA, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria , Universidad de Málaga , Málaga , Spain.



Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains one of the most important causes of drug attrition both in the early phases of clinical drug development and in the postmarketing scenario. This is because, in spite of emerging data on genetic susceptibility variants associated to the risk of hepatotoxicity, the precise identification of the individual who will develop DILI when exposed to a given drug remains elusive.


In this review, we have addressed recent progress made and initiatives taken in the field of DILI from a safety perspective through a comprehensive search of the literature.


Despite the substantial progress made over this century, new approaches using big data analysis to characterize the true incidence of DILI are needed and to categorize the drugs' hepatotoxic potential. Genetic studies have highlighted the role of the adaptive immune system yet the mechanisms leading adaptation versus progression remain to be elucidated. There is a compelling need for development and qualification of sensitive, specific, and affordable biomarkers in DILI to foster drug development, patient treatment stratification and, improvement of causality assessment methods. Gaining mechanistic insights in DILI is essential to uncover therapeutic targets and design prospective clinical trials with appropriate endpoints.


CIOM/RUCAM scale; DILI; Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury; biomarkers; hepatotoxicity; immunophenotype

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