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J Ultrasound Med. 2019 Feb;38(2):463-470. doi: 10.1002/jum.14719. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Acute Cardiovascular Adaptation to Strenuous Exercise: An Integrative Ultrasound Study.

Author information

1
Institute of Clinical Physiology, Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche, Pisa, Italy.
2
University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
3
Institute of Life Science, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy.
4
Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche, Milan, Italy.
5
Department of Cardiology, Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Policlinico S. Donato, Milan, Italy.
6
Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Unità Operativa Medicina di Urgenza e Pronto Soccorso Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, Pisa, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of participation in an Ironman distance triathlon competition on arterial function by ultrasound, in relation to cardiac function and body water content.

METHODS:

Twenty-eight male triathletes participating in an Ironman distance competition underwent carotid, femoral, and cardiac ultrasound examinations. Moreover, the presence of extravascular lung water was identified by lung echo B-lines (echogenic coherent wedge-shaped signal with a narrow origin from the hyperechoic pleural line) at rest and within 20 minutes of arrival.

RESULTS:

At the end of the competition, athletes showed an increased heart rate (mean ± SD, from 60.2 ± 13.1 to 82.8 ± 15.6 beats/min; P < .0001) and unchanged mean blood pressure (from 93 ± 14 to 91 ± 10 mm Hg; P > .05) in the presence of negligible dehydration (total body water from 48.0 ± 4.0 to 46.5 ± 3.9 kg; P > .05). Cardiac output increased (from 5.5 ± 1.2 to 6.7 ± 2.4 L/min; P < .05) in the presence of an unchanged stroke volume (from 64 ± 14 to 59 ± 16 mL; P > .05) and unchanged left ventricular elastance (from 1.52 ± 0.48 to 1.39 ± 0.48 mm Hg/mL/m2 ; P > .05). The mean carotid diameter increased (from 7.19 ± 0.65 to 7.61 ± 0.76 mm; P < .05), whereas the mean femoral diameter was unchanged at the end of the competition (from 10.41 ± 0.83 to 10.49 ± 0.82 mm; P > .05). Carotid intima-media thickness was significantly reduced (from 537 ± 70 to 495 ± 70 μm; P < .05), whereas B-lines increased significantly after the competition (from 1 [0-4] to 12 [5-23]; P < .0001).

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest different acute functional adaptation in central arteries with respect to peripheral leg vessels.

KEYWORDS:

Ironman; adaptation; arterial diameter; arterial stiffness; carotid; exercise; vascular

PMID:
30058080
DOI:
10.1002/jum.14719

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