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Toxicol Res. 2018 Jul;34(3):199-210. doi: 10.5487/TR.2018.34.3.199. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

Metabolic Profiling of Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Human Urine.

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College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea.
Department of Animal Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea.
Division of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea.
Department of Kinesiologic Medical Science, Graduate School, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea.
Department of Physical Therapy, Namseoul University, Cheonan, Korea.
Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute of Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.


Skeletal muscle can be ultrastructurally damaged by eccentric exercise, and the damage causes metabolic disruption in muscle. This study aimed to determine changes in the metabolomic patterns in urine and metabolomic markers in muscle damage after eccentric exercise. Five men and 6 women aged 19~23 years performed 30 min of the bench step exercise at 70 steps per min at a determined step height of 110% of the lower leg length, and stepping frequency at 15 cycles per min. 1H NMR spectral analysis was performed in urine collected from all participants before and after eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage conventionally determined using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Urinary metabolic profiles were built by multivariate analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) using SIMCA-P. From the OPLS-DA, men and women were separated 2 hr after the eccentric exercise and the separated patterns were maintained or clarified until 96 hr after the eccentric exercise. Subsequently, urinary metabolic profiles showed distinct trajectory patterns between men and women. Finally, we found increased urinary metabolites (men: alanine, asparagine, citrate, creatine phosphate, ethanol, formate, glucose, glycine, histidine, and lactate; women: adenine) after the eccentric exercise. These results could contribute to understanding metabolic responses following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in humans.


Eccentric exercise; Metabolomic analysis; Sex-dependent patterns; Skeletal muscle

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