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Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Sep;130:367-376. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.07.018. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Mutualistic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari increases root aerenchyma formation through auxin-mediated ethylene accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Author information

1
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, Jiangsu Engineering and Technology Research Center for Industrialization of Microbial Resources, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210023, China.
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, Jiangsu Engineering and Technology Research Center for Industrialization of Microbial Resources, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210023, China. Electronic address: daichuanchao@njnu.edu.cn.

Abstract

The fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari can improve nitrification rates and alter the abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizers in the soil rhizosphere of rice. Aerenchyma is related to oxygen transport efficiency and contributes to the enhanced rhizospheric nitrification under flooding conditions. However, whether and how P. liquidambari affects aerenchyma formation is largely unknown. We therefore conducted pot and hydroponic experiments to investigate the changes of aerenchyma area, ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in rice with or without P. liquidambari infection. Our results showed that the larger aerenchyma area in rice roots with P. liquidambari inoculation was associated with markedly up-regulated expression of genes related to aerenchyma formation. Meanwhile, P. liquidambari inoculation substantially elevated root porosity (POR) and radial oxygen loss (ROL), leading to the enhancement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) under pot condition. Besides, P. liquidambari significantly increased IAA and ethylene levels in rice by stimulating the expression of genes involved in auxin and ethylene biosyntheses. Furthermore, auxin that partly acting upstream of ethylene signalling played an essential role in P. liquidambari-promoted aerenchyma formation. These results verified the direct contribution of P. liquidambari in promoting aerenchyma formation via the accumulation of IAA and ethylene in rice roots, which provides a constructive suggestion for improving hypoxia tolerance through plant-endophyte interactions.

KEYWORDS:

Aerenchyma; Ethylene; Fungal endophyte; Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); Rice

PMID:
30055345
DOI:
10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.07.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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