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J Biomed Opt. 2018 Jul;23(7):1-12. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.23.7.076011.

Two-layer inverse model for improved longitudinal preclinical tumor imaging in the spatial frequency domain.

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Boston University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
Boston University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
University of Arkansas, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States.


Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) is a widefield, noncontact, and label-free imaging modality that is currently being explored as a new tool for longitudinal tracking of cancer therapies in the preclinical setting. We describe a two-layer look-up-table (LUT) inversion algorithm for SFDI that better accounts for the skin (top layer) and tumor (bottom layer) tissue geometry in subcutaneous tumor models. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were conducted natively in the spatial frequency domain, avoiding discretization errors associated with Fourier or Hankel transforms of conventional MC simulation results. The two-layer LUT was validated using two-layer tissue mimicking optical phantoms, in which the optical property extractions of the bottom (tumor) layer were determined to be within 20% and 11% of the true values for μa and μs', respectively. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate how imperfect top layer estimates affect bottom-layer optical property extractions. Finally, the two-layer LUT was used to reanalyze a prior longitudinal data set, which revealed larger therapy-induced changes in optical scattering and a more hypoxic tumor environment compared to the homogeneous LUT. The two-layer LUT described here improves the accuracy of subcutaneous tumor imaging, and the general methodology can be applied for arbitrary multilayer SFDI applications.


diffuse optics; inversion algorithm; oncology; optical properties; photon migration; spatial frequency domain


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