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Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 27;8(1):11377. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29063-9.

Annatto-extracted tocotrienols improve glucose homeostasis and bone properties in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing the inflammatory response.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA. leslie.shen@ttuhsc.edu.
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA. leslie.shen@ttuhsc.edu.
3
Obesity Research Cluster, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA. leslie.shen@ttuhsc.edu.
4
Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.
5
Obesity Research Cluster, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.
6
Department of Nutrition, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
7
Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.
8
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.
9
Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Abstract

Diabetes is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Annatto-extracted tocotrienols (TT) have proven benefits in preserving bone matrix. Here, we evaluated the effects of dietary TT on glucose homeostasis, bone properties, and liver pro-inflammatory mRNA expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. 58 male C57BL/6 J mice were divided into 5 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), HFD, HFD + 400 mgTT/kg diet (T400), HFD + 1600 mgTT/kg diet (T1600), and HFD + 200 mg metformin/kg (Met) for 14 weeks. Relative to the HFD group, both TT-supplemented groups (1) improved glucose homeostasis by lowering the area under the curve for both glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests, (2) increased serum procollagen I intact N-terminal propeptide (bone formation) level, trabecular bone volume/total volume, trabecular number, connectivity density, and cortical thickness, (3) decreased collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (bone resorption) levels, trabecular separation, and structure model index, and (4) suppressed liver mRNA levels of inflammation markers including IL-2, IL-23, IFN-γ, MCP-1, TNF-α, ITGAX and F4/80. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis and liver mRNA expression among T400, T1600, and Met. The order of osteo-protective effects was LFD ≥T1600 ≥T400 = Met >HFD. Collectively, these data suggest that TT exerts osteo-protective effects in T2DM mice by regulating glucose homeostasis and suppressing inflammation.

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