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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2018 Jul 23. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy204. [Epub ahead of print]

Regional variation in the treatment and prevention of peritoneal dialysis-related infections in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

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Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
Department of Nephrology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia.
Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Department of Medicine, Renal Electrolyte Division, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Department of Nephrology, Division of Nephrology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Japan.
Department of Nephrology, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.
Department of Nephrology, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
Department of Renal Medicine, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, and Kidney & Metabolic Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Carol & Richard Yu Peritoneal Dialysis Research Centre, Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China.
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, St. Michael's Hospital and the Keenan Research Center in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.



Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections lead to significant morbidity. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) guidelines for the prevention and treatment of PD-related infections are based on variable evidence. We describe practice patterns across facilities participating in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS).


PDOPPS, a prospective cohort study, enrolled nationally representative samples of PD patients in Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Canada, Thailand, Japan, the UK and the USA. Data on PD-related infection prevention and treatment practices across facilities were obtained from a survey of medical directors'.


A total of 170 centers, caring for >11‚ÄČ000 patients, were included. The proportion of facilities reporting antibiotic administration at the time of PD catheter insertion was lowest in the USA (63%) and highest in Canada and the UK (100%). Exit-site antimicrobial prophylaxis was variably used across countries, with Japan (4%) and Thailand (28%) having the lowest proportions. Exit-site mupirocin was the predominant exit-site prophylactic strategy in ANZ (56%), Canada (50%) and the UK (47%), while exit-site aminoglycosides were more common in the USA (72%). Empiric Gram-positive peritonitis treatment with vancomycin was most common in the UK (88%) and USA (83%) compared with 10-45% elsewhere. Empiric Gram-negative peritonitis treatment with aminoglycoside therapy was highest in ANZ (72%) and the UK (77%) compared with 10-45% elsewhere.


Variation in PD-related infection prevention and treatment strategies exist across countries with limited uptake of ISPD guideline recommendations. Further work will aim to understand the impact these differences have on the wide variation in infection risk between facilities and other clinically relevant PD outcomes.


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