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J Public Health (Oxf). 2019 Jun 1;41(2):321-328. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy120.

Urban-rural differences in related factors of second-hand smoke exposure: a cross-sectional study of adult non-smokers in Northeast China.

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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jilin University School of Public Health, 1163 Xinmin Street, Changchun, Jilin, China.
Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.
Department of Neurology, Stroke Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.



this study aims to examine the different factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) between urban and rural areas and to facilitate a reduction in SHS exposure in Northeast China.


a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this 2012 cross-sectional survey in Jilin Province, Northeast China. A total of 13 056 non-smokers were included in this study. The Rao-Scott χ2 test, multiple regression analysis and discriminant function analysis were used.


the SHS prevalence among adult non-smokers was 60.2% in urban areas and 61.8% in rural areas. In urban areas, males were more likely to be exposed to SHS, while in rural areas, females were more likely to be exposed to SHS (P < 0.05). Increasing age was a protective factor against SHS exposure both in urban and rural areas (P < 0.05). Tobacco-relevant knowledge was positively associated with SHS exposure. Among urban non-smokers, high education level and engagement in manual work were risk factors for SHS exposure, and retired subjects were less likely to be exposed to SHS (P < 0.01).


non-smokers from urban and rural areas differ in the factors associated with SHS exposure, and urban-rural differentials, especially with regard to gender, should be considered in tobacco control.


adults; health protection; smoking


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