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BMJ Open. 2018 Jul 25;8(7):e020705. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020705.

Prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder among emergency responders of Addis Ababa Fire and Emergency Control and Prevention Service Authority, Ethiopia: institution-based, cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
2
College of Medicine and Health Science, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among emergency responders at Addis Ababa Fire and Emergency Control and Prevention Service Authority, Ethiopia.

DESIGN:

Institution-based, cross-sectional design.

SETTING:

The study was conducted at the Fire and Emergency Control and Prevention Service Authority, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

PARTICIPANTS:

603 emergency responders who worked in the Fire and Emergency Control and Prevention Authority during the study period.

MEASUREMENT:

Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire: an adaptation of the standardised PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. The questionnaire was administered to subjects on duty. Social support was measured using the Oslo 3-Item Social Support Scale, while other stressful life events were measured using the List of Threatening Experiences, that is, experiencing one or more stressful life events in the last 6 months. Reliability and construct validity were verified. To be diagnosed with PTSD, a subject must display at least three different types of symptoms at once. Coded variables were entered into Epi Info V.3.5.1 and then exported to SPSS V.20 for analysis. Descriptive and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and 95% CI were employed to establish and test statistically significant associations.

RESULTS:

A total of 603 subjects participated in the study, with 19.9% prevalence rate of PTSD (95% CI 16.9 to 23.1). The study found family history of mental illness (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.82; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.84), longer years of service (AOR=2.67; 95% CI 1.54 to 4.63), as well as prolonged exposure to emergency situations (AOR=0.44; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.84) and road traffic accidents (AOR=2.71; 95% CI 1.67 to 4.42) as significant predictors of PTSD among emergency responders.

CONCLUSION:

The prevalence of PTSD was high among the study population. Family history of mental illness, length of service, duration of exposure and type of exposure were found to be associated with PTSD. Mental health education and linking emergency responders with available mental health services/facilities should be prioritised to mitigate the problem.

KEYWORDS:

disorder; emergency responders; posttraumatic stress

PMID:
30049692
PMCID:
PMC6067328
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020705
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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