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Cell Immunol. 2018 Nov;333:9-18. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2018.07.007. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Glycans as critical regulators of gut immunity in homeostasis and disease.

Author information

1
Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (I3S), Porto, Portugal; Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), Porto, Portugal; Institute of Biomedical Sciences of Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
2
Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (I3S), Porto, Portugal; Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), Porto, Portugal; Medical Faculty, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
3
Institute of Biomedical Sciences of Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Department of Gastroenterology, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Medical Faculty, Centre for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems (CINTESIS), Porto, Portugal.
4
Department of Gastroenterology, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
5
Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (I3S), Porto, Portugal; Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), Porto, Portugal; Medical Faculty, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: salomep@ipatimup.pt.

Abstract

The diversity of glycans expression within a cell or an organism is enormous and the amount of relevant biological information that each glycan structure encodes is far from being clarified. The importance of glycans in health and life sciences is highlighted by their multiple functional implications in different cellular and molecular biology processes with impact in homeostasis and diseases, such as cancer and inflammatory conditions. Glycans actively participate in the regulatory circuits that govern both innate and adaptive immune response. Changes in the glycans repertoire occur during the transition from normal to inflamed conditions and the aberrant expression of glycans dictates either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses. This review summarizes how glycans integrate the regulatory networks of immune response with a focus on gut immunity.

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