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J Microbiol. 2018 Aug;56(8):571-578. doi: 10.1007/s12275-018-8267-0. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Biosynthesis of 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone moiety of bafilomycin in Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC2395.

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College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyoungsan, 38541, Republic of Korea.
College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyoungsan, 38541, Republic of Korea.


Bafilomycins produced by Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC- 2395 belong to the 16-membered macrolactone family plecomacrolide antibiotics. Bafilomycin B1 contains 2-amino- 3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone (C5N), a five membered ring, which gets condensed via an amide linkage to bafilomycin polyketide. To study the biosynthetic pathway of C5N during bafilomycin biosynthesis in K. cheerisanensis KCTC2395, we attempted the functional analysis of two putative genes, encoding 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) and acyl- CoA ligase (ACL). The amplified putative genes for ALAS and ACL were cloned into the E. coli expression vector pET- 32a(+) plasmid, following which the soluble recombinant ALAS and ACL proteins were purified through nickel-affinity column chromatography. Through HPLC analysis of the enzyme reaction mixture, we confirmed the products of putative ALAS and ACL reaction as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and 5-ALA-CoA, respectively. The optimal pH for the putative ALAS reaction was 7.5, and for putative ACL reaction was 7.0, as confirmed by the colorimetric assay. Furthermore, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was found to be an essential cofactor in the putative ALAS reaction, and ATP was a cofactor for the putative ACL catalysis. Finally, we also confirmed that the simultaneous treatment of putative ACL and putative ALAS enzymes resulted in the production of C5N compound from 5-ALA.


2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone; 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase; C5N; Kitasatospora cheerisanensis; acyl-CoA ligase; bafilomycin

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