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Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018 Jul 25;16(1):146. doi: 10.1186/s12955-018-0972-1.

Quality of life in adults with lymphedema cholestasis syndrome 1.

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Centre for Rare Disorders, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.
Department of Clinical Service, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Postboks 4956 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.
Centre for Rare Disorders, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.
Faculty of Social Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of applied Sciences, Postboks 4 St. Olavs plass, 0130, Oslo, Norway.



LCS1 (Lymphedema Cholestasis Syndrome 1/Aagenaes syndrome) is a rare, hereditary disorder, where the highest known prevalence is in Norway. The disorder is characterized by lymphedema and periodic cholestasis from birth or the neonatal period. This study aimed to examine internal reliability of the SF-36, in addition to the group's overall- and health related quality of life (OQoL and HRQoL) and psychosocial well-being.


Twenty adults (aged 18-65) in Norway have been diagnosed with LSC1. Eighteen of these patients were included in the study and completed four questionnaires on overall and health related quality of life and psychosocial well-being: Cantril's Ladder (CL), The Kaasa Test, the SF-36, and a lymphedema anamnesis questionnaire. Demographic data were registered, and 15 of the patients underwent a physical examination of the lymphedema. SF-36 scores were compared with those of 360 age and gender matched controls drawn from an earlier survey of the Norwegian general population. The Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square (χ2) test were used to test internal differences in the patient group.


Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was significantly reduced in patients with LSC1 compared to controls, in three out of eight areas, role physical, general health and mental health. Females scored significantly better than males in the patient group in two areas of SF-36, in CL, and in one of three scales of The Kaasa Test. Severe lymphedema was found to be significantly correlated to bodily pain and reduced mental health. The level of education was positively correlated to mental health.


Overall quality of life (OQoL), health related quality of life (HRQoL) and psycho-social well-being were good in the patient group, but some dimensions of HRQoL were reduced. More severe extent of lymphedema was associated with poorer HRQoL.


Aagenaes syndrome; Cantril’s ladder; Health related quality of life; LCS1; Lymphedema; Lymphedema cholestasis syndrome 1; Rarity; SF-36; The Kaasa test

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