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BMC Cancer. 2018 Jul 25;18(1):764. doi: 10.1186/s12885-018-4579-z.

Decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and TET1 with nuclear exclusion of TET2 in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

Author information

1
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Rudbeck Laboratory, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
2
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Rudbeck Laboratory, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden. peter.stalberg@surgsci.uu.se.
3
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Rudbeck Laboratory, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden. gunnar.westin@surgsci.uu.se.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) originate from enterochromaffin cells scattered in the intestinal mucosa of the ileum and jejunum. Loss of one copy of chromosome 18 is the most frequent observed aberration in primary tumors and metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate possible involvement of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), TET1 and TET2 in SI-NETs.

METHODS:

The analysis was conducted using 40 primary tumors and corresponding 47 metastases. The level of 5hmC, TET1 and TET2 was analyzed by DNA immune-dot blot assay and immunohistochemistry. Other methods included a colony forming assay, western blotting analysis, and quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing analysis. The effect of the exportin-1 nuclear transport machinery inhibitors on cell proliferation and apoptosis was also explored using two SI-NET cell lines.

RESULTS:

Variable levels of 5hmC and a mosaic staining appearance with a mixture of positive and negative cell nuclei, regardless of cell number and staining strength, was observed overall both in primary tumors and metastases. Similarly aberrant staining pattern was observed for TET1 and TET2. In a number of tumors (15/32) mosaic pattern together with areas of negative staining was also observed for TET1. Abolished expression of TET1 in the tumors did not seem to involve hypermethylation of the TET1 promoter region. Overexpression of TET1 in a colony forming assay supported a function as cell growth regulator. In contrast to 5hmC and TET1, TET2 was also observed in the cytoplasm of all the analyzed SI-NETs regardless of nuclear localization. Treatment of CNDT2.5 and KRJ-I cells with the exportin-1 (XPO1/CRM1) inhibitor, leptomycin B, induced reduction in the cytoplasm and nuclear retention of TET2. Aberrant partitioning of TET2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm seemed therefore to involve the exportin-1 nuclear transport machinery. Reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis were observed after treatment of CNDT2.5 and KRJ-I cells with leptomycin B or KPT-330 (selinexor).

CONCLUSIONS:

SI-NETs are epigenetically dysregulated at the level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine/ TET1/TET2. We suggest that KPT-330/selinexor or future developments should be considered and evaluated for single treatment of patients with SI-NET disease and also in combinations with somatostatin analogues, peptide receptor radiotherapy, or everolimus.

KEYWORDS:

5-hydroxymethylcytosine; Epigenetic; Neuroendocrine tumors; SI-NET; TET1; TET2

PMID:
30045709
PMCID:
PMC6060499
DOI:
10.1186/s12885-018-4579-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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