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PLoS One. 2018 Jul 25;13(7):e0198681. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198681. eCollection 2018.

Cigarette and e-cigarette dual use and risk of cardiopulmonary symptoms in the Health eHeart Study.

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24K Data, Washington, DC, United States of America.
Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, United States of America.
Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, United States of America.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, United States of America.


E-cigarettes are promoted as healthier alternatives to conventional cigarettes. Many cigarette smokers use both products. It is unknown whether the additional use of e-cigarettes among cigarette smokers (dual users) is associated with reduced exposure to tobacco-related health risks. Cross-sectional analysis was performed using baseline data from the Health eHeart Study, among English-speaking adults, mostly from the United States. Cigarette use (# cigarettes/day) and/or e-cigarette use (# days, # cartridges, and # puffs) were compared between cigarette only users vs. dual users. Additionally, we examined cardiopulmonary symptoms/ conditions across product use: no product (neither), e-cigarettes only, cigarettes only, and dual use. Among 39,747 participants, 573 (1.4%) reported e-cigarette only use, 1,693 (4.3%) reported cigarette only use, and 514 (1.3%) dual use. Dual users, compared to cigarette only users, reported a greater median (IQR) number of cigarettes per day, 10.0 (4.0-20.0) vs. 9.0 (3.0-15.0) (p < .0001), a lower (worse) median (IQR) SF-12 general health score, 3.3 (2.8-3.8) vs. 3.5 (2.8-3.9) (p = .0014), and a higher (worse) median (IQR) breathing difficulty score in the past month, 2.0 (1.0-2.0) vs. 1.0 (1.0-2.0) (p = .001). Of the 19 cardiopulmonary symptoms/ conditions, having a history of arrhythmia was significantly different between cigarette only users (14.2%) and dual users (17.8%) (p = .02). In this sample, dual use was not associated with reduced exposure to either (i) cigarettes, compared to cigarette only users or (ii) e-cigarettes, compared to e-cigarette only users. E-cigarette only use, compared to no product use, was associated with lower general health scores, higher breathing difficulty scores (typically and past month), and greater proportions of those who responded 'yes' to having chest pain, palpitations, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, COPD, and asthma. These data suggest the added use of e-cigarettes alone may have contributed to cardiopulmonary health risks particularly respiratory health risks.

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