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Nat Neurosci. 2018 Aug;21(8):1072-1083. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0191-4. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Dopamine neurons create Pavlovian conditioned stimuli with circuit-defined motivational properties.

Author information

1
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. bts@umn.edu.
2
Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. bts@umn.edu.
3
Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. bts@umn.edu.
4
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
5
Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
6
Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
7
Department of Neurology, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, Alcoholism and Addiction Research Group, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
8
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. patricia.janak@jhu.edu.
9
Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. patricia.janak@jhu.edu.
10
Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. patricia.janak@jhu.edu.

Abstract

Environmental cues, through Pavlovian learning, become conditioned stimuli that guide animals toward the acquisition of rewards (for example, food) that are necessary for survival. We tested the fundamental role of midbrain dopamine neurons in conferring predictive and motivational properties to cues, independent of external rewards. We found that brief phasic optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons, when presented in temporal association with discrete sensory cues, was sufficient to instantiate those cues as conditioned stimuli that subsequently both evoked dopamine neuron activity on their own and elicited cue-locked conditioned behavior. Notably, we identified highly parcellated functions for dopamine neuron subpopulations projecting to different regions of striatum, revealing dissociable dopamine systems for the generation of incentive value and conditioned movement invigoration. Our results indicate that dopamine neurons orchestrate Pavlovian conditioning via functionally heterogeneous, circuit-specific motivational signals to create, gate, and shape cue-controlled behaviors.

PMID:
30038277
PMCID:
PMC6082399
DOI:
10.1038/s41593-018-0191-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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