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Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2018 Aug;36(3):609-630. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2018.04.009. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Emergency Medicine Evaluation and Management of Anemia.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Military Medical Center, 3841 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.


Anemia is a common condition and is diagnosed on laboratory assessment. It is defined by abnormally low hemoglobin concentration or decreased red blood cells. Several classification systems exist. Laboratory markers provide important information. Acute anemia presents with symptoms owing to acute blood loss; chronic anemia may present with worsening fatigue, dyspnea, lightheadedness, or chest pain. Specific treatments depend on the underlying anemia and etiology. Iron is an alternative treatment for patients with microcytic anemia owing to iron deficiency. Hyperbaric oxygen is an option for alternative rescue therapy. Most patients with chronic anemia may be discharged with follow-up if hemodynamically stable.


Anemia; Evaluation; Macrocytic; Management; Microcytic; Normocytic; Red blood cells; Transfusion; Transfusion reaction

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