Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nutrients. 2018 Jul 21;10(7). pii: E938. doi: 10.3390/nu10070938.

Lactation Duration and Long-Term Thyroid Function: A Study among Women with Gestational Diabetes.

Author information

1
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. pranati_panuganti@brown.edu.
2
The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA. pranati_panuganti@brown.edu.
3
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. hinklesn@mail.nih.gov.
4
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. shristi.rawal@rutgers.edu.
5
Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Health Professions, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07107, USA. shristi.rawal@rutgers.edu.
6
Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, DK-2300 Copenhagen, Denmark. Louise.Groth.Grunnet@regionh.dk.
7
Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet University Hospital, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. Louise.Groth.Grunnet@regionh.dk.
8
The Danish Diabetes Academy, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark. Louise.Groth.Grunnet@regionh.dk.
9
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. linyy@iu.edu.
10
Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. linyy@iu.edu.
11
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. liua@mail.nih.gov.
12
Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet University Hospital, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. anne.cathrine.baun.thuesen@regionh.dk.
13
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA. sylvia.ley@channing.harvard.edu.
14
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. sylvia.ley@channing.harvard.edu.
15
Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, DK-2300 Copenhagen, Denmark. SFO@ssi.dk.
16
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. zhangcu@mail.nih.gov.

Abstract

Lactation is associated with reduced postpartum weight retention and a lower risk of several cardiometabolic disorders in population-based studies. We examined the association between lactation and long-term thyroid function among women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a high-risk population for subsequent metabolic complications. The study included 550 women who developed GDM in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996⁻2002) and followed-up in the Diabetes & Women's Health Study (2012⁻2014). We assessed adjusted associations between cumulative lactation duration and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) measured at follow-up. Women with longer cumulative lactation duration tended to have higher fT3 levels (adjusted β and 95% confidence interval (CI) for ≥12 months vs. none: 0.19 (0.03⁻0.36); p-trend = 0.05). When restricted to women with a single lifetime pregnancy to control for parity (n = 70), women who lactated for >6 months (vs. none) had higher fT3 levels (0.46 pmol/L (0.12⁻0.80); p-trend = 0.02) and a higher fT3:fT4 ratio (0.61 (0.17⁻1.05); p-trend = 0.007). Our findings suggested that a longer duration of lactation may be related to greater serum fT3 levels and fT3:fT4 ratio 9⁻16 years postpartum among Danish women with a history of GDM. The association was particularly pronounced among women who only had one lifetime pregnancy.

KEYWORDS:

GDM; lactation; thyroid; thyroid antibodies; thyroxine; triiodothyronine

PMID:
30037073
PMCID:
PMC6073731
DOI:
10.3390/nu10070938
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center