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J Phys Ther Sci. 2018 Jul;30(7):943-947. doi: 10.1589/jpts.30.943. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

The effect of the trunk and gluteus maximus muscle activities according to support surface and hip joint rotation during bridge exercise.

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Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Science, Catholic University of Daegu: 13-13 Hayang-ro, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongbuk 712-702, Republic of Korea.
Department of Physical Therapy, Gangneung Yeongdong College, Republic of Korea.


[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to strengthen gluteus maximus and trunk muscles depending upon the hip joint direction by bridging exercise on an unstable and stable surface, and to suggest an intervention method for efficient and selective exercise. [Participants and Methods] The test measured the muscle activities with the external rotation and internal rotation of 25 degrees and hip joint neutral position of 0 degree on a stable and unstable surface each exercise 3 times for 9 seconds. [Results] External oblique abdominis showed a higher muscle activity on the unstable surface and internal rotation. Erector spinae showed no significant difference on the surfaces and demonstrated the highest muscle activity at the internal rotation. Gluteus maximus showed a higher muscle activity on the stable surface and external rotation and the interaction effect between the surface and the angle indicated a statistical significance as well. [Conclusion] Muscle activities appear different depending upon the change of surface and joint angle, and it can be said that the correct mobilization of muscle fiber relying on the muscle arrangement direction and muscle contraction direction is the most important factor for gluteus maximus.


Bridging exercise; Electromyography; Unstable surface

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