Send to

Choose Destination
Acta Stomatol Croat. 2018 Mar;52(1):4-11. doi: 10.15644/asc52/1/1.

First Permanent Molars and Permanent Incisors Teeth by Tooth Prevalence of Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation in a Group of Spanish Schoolchildren.

Author information

Department of Pediatric Dentistry. Dental School, University of Barcelona, Spain.
Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.



Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH) is a disturbance in dental development that commonly involves first permanent molars but permanent incisors may also be compromised. The prevalence of MIH in the literature varies between 2.5% and 40% of the world child population. Little information is gained on the prevalence of MIH among children in Spain.


The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MIH among school children from Barcelona, Spain.

Material and methods:

A cross-sectional study which included 705 children, aged 6 -14 years and 11 months was carried out. Full mouth examinations were performed using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria for the diagnosis of MIH.


A total of 56 cases of MIH were found, 22 (39.3%) boys and 34 (60.7%) girls. The prevalence was 7.94% (6.39% for boys and 9.41% for girls). MIH lesions were seen more often in girls than boys (χ2 = 4.9, p= 0.023) the male/female ratio being 1:1.54. Upper teeth were more prevalent than lower teeth in both genders with an upper/lower ratio of 1.86/1 for boys and 1.68/1 for girls.


Considered either by gender or by teeth, upper teeth and girls were ahead in our sample.


Amelogenesis Imperfecta; Dental Enamel Hypoplasia; Incisor; Molar; Odontodysplasia; Tooth Demineralization

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest: The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center