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Med Teach. 2018 Aug;40(8):762-780. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1473562. Epub 2018 Jul 22.

What are the features of targeted or system-wide initiatives that affect diversity in health professions trainees? A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 50.

Author information

1
a Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.
2
b Division of Infectious Diseases , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.
3
c Department of Family Medicine, Division of Community Engagement , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.
4
d John W. Scott Health Sciences Library, University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.
5
e Department of Pediatrics , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.
6
f Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:

There is interest to increase diversity among health professions trainees. This study aims to determine the features/effects of interventions to promote recruitment/admission of under-represented minority (URM) students to health professions programs.

METHODOLOGY:

This registered BEME review applied systematic methods to: title/full-text inclusion review, data extraction, and quality assessment (QA). Included studies reported outcomes for interventions designed to increase diversity of health professions education (HPE) programs' recruitment and admissions.

RESULTS:

Of 7225 studies identified 86 met inclusion criteria. Interventions addressed: admissions (34%), enrichment (19%), outreach (15%), curriculum (3%), and mixed (29%). They were mostly single center (76%), from the United States (81%), in medicine (45%) or dentistry (22%). URM definition was stated in only 24%. The dimension most commonly considered was ethnicity/race (88%). The majority of studies (81%) found positive effects. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Qualitative analysis identified key features: admissions studies points systems and altered weightings; enrichment studies highlighted academic, application and exam preparation, and workplace exposure.

DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:

Several intervention types may increase diversity. Limited applicant pools were a rate-limiting feature, suggesting efforts earlier in the continuum are needed to broaden applicant pools. There is a need to examine underlying cultural and external pressures that limit programs' acceptance of initiatives to increase diversity.

PMID:
30033789
DOI:
10.1080/0142159X.2018.1473562
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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