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Eur J Nutr. 2018 Oct;57(7):2649-2656. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1791-1. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Large artery stiffness is associated with salt intake in young healthy black but not white adults: the African-PREDICT study.

Author information

1
Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa.
2
MRC Research Unit: Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
3
Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa. Alta.Schutte@nwu.ac.za.
4
MRC Research Unit: Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Alta.Schutte@nwu.ac.za.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

There is global consensus on the benefits of reducing excessive salt intake. Indeed, lower salt intake associates with reduced arterial stiffness, a well-established predictor of cardiovascular risk, in older populations. Whether high habitual salt intake in healthy normotensive youth may already contribute to increased arterial stiffness is unknown. We, therefore, determined whether estimated salt intake is associated with large artery stiffness in young healthy black and white adults.

METHODS:

We included 693 black and white adults (51% black; 42% men), aged 20-30 years. Participants were normotensive based on clinic blood pressure, and no previous diagnosed chronic illnesses. We measured carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and determined estimated salt intake based on 24 h urinary sodium excretion.

RESULTS:

We found estimated salt consumption of > 5 g/day in 47% of our population, whereas 21% consumed > 10 g/day. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses a positive association existed between estimated salt intake and cfPWV in the total group (Adj. R2 = 0.32; std. β = 0.10; p = 0.007), and black adults (Adj. R2 = 0.37; std. β = 0.12; p = 0.029). This was independent of age, sex, mean arterial pressure, and other covariates. No association was evident in white individuals (p = 0.19).

CONCLUSION:

Excessive salt intake is positively associated with large artery stiffness-independent of blood pressure-in young adults, especially in black individuals. Our results suggest a potential contributory role of salt consumption towards early vascular aging.

KEYWORDS:

Arterial stiffness; Black; Estimated salt intake; Healthy; Young

PMID:
30032457
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-018-1791-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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