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Sci Total Environ. 2018 Dec 15;645:596-602. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.151. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Occurrence and distribution of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in natural forest soils: A nationwide study in China.

Author information

1
MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China; State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
2
MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address: zhaozhen@nankai.edu.cn.
3
State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
4
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.
5
MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Abstract

Forests serve as the primary reservoir for organic carbon above ground. Previous studies have revealed that forest soils play key roles in the retention of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In this study, the occurrence and distribution of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were investigated in 54 surface soil samples from 28 natural forested mountain sites across China between 2012 and 2013. The detection frequency of PFOA (70%) was significantly higher than that of PFOS (4%). PFOA levels ranged from <0.9 to 9.0 pg·g-1 dry weight (dw). Levels of PFOA and PFOS in forest soils were significantly lower than those in agricultural, urban and rural areas in China. Relatively high levels of PFOA were detected in Hubei Province (Jiugong Mountain, average: 3.4 pg·g-1 dw) and Jiangxi Province (Wugong Mountain, average: 4.4 pg·g-1 dw), where many domestic fluoropolymer manufacturers are located. PFOS was only detected in these two provinces (2.2 pg·g-1 dw and 2.7 pg·g-1 dw, respectively). From most of the surveyed mountains, the concentrations of PFOA increased with elevation. The lower temperature and greater precipitation probably made PFOA and its precursors available to transport and degrade more readily at higher altitude sites. A relatively higher level (1.9 ± 1.3 pg·g-1 dw) of PFOA was found in the broadleaf evergreen forest area, mainly due to the high industrial emissions, plant retention, and precipitation rate in this area. Source were the dominant factor controlling the spatial distribution of PFOA in natural forest soils in China.

KEYWORDS:

Altitude; Forest soil; Natural mountain; PFOA; PFOS

PMID:
30029134
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.151
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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