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Niger Postgrad Med J. 2018 Apr-Jun;25(2):67-72. doi: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_36_18.

Pathogenesis, diagnostic challenges and treatment of zika virus disease in resource-limited settings.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
2
Department of Paediatrics, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
3
Department of Medical Microbiology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.

Abstract

The association of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection with congenital malformation and neurological sequelae has brought significant global concern. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it "a public health emergency of International concern" on 1 February, 2016. A critical review of its pathogenesis would lead to a better understanding of the clinical features and the neurological complications. This review is based on literature search in PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and the WHO, http://www.who.int. This include all relevant articles written in English published through June 2018, with subject heading and keywords such as Zika, ZIKV, Zika pathogenesis, diagnosis of Zika, Zika Nigeria, Zika Africa and Zika resource-limited settings. Following ZIKV infection, viraemia ensues targeting primarily the monocytes for both the Asian and African strains. ZIKV infection by an African strain appears to be more pathogenic, in early pregnancy tends to result in spontaneous abortion. Whereas an Asian strain tends to be less pathogenic and more chronic, this allows the pregnancy to continue, ultimately resulting in congenital malformations. There is no routine laboratory diagnosis of ZIKV infection in resource-constrained countries. Serologic tests should be interpreted with caution since there can be cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, especially in Africa where the burden of infection with flaviviruses is comparatively high. There is a paucity of well-equipped laboratories for comprehensive ZIKV diagnosis. It is imperative to strengthen the health systems, improve health workforce and diagnostic capacity of such settings.

KEYWORDS:

Africa; Zika; diagnosis; pathogenesis

PMID:
30027916
DOI:
10.4103/npmj.npmj_36_18
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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