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Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2018 Nov 1;171:115-122. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.07.021. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Thymus essential oil extraction, characterization and incorporation in phospholipid vesicles for the antioxidant/antibacterial treatment of oral cavity diseases.

Author information

1
Dept. of Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Drug Science Division, University of Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari, Italy.
2
Dept. of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
3
Institute of Science of Food Production ISPA-CNR, Traversa la Crucca 3, Loc. Baldinca, 07040 Sassari, Italy.
4
Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Unit, Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
5
Dept. of Experimental Medicine and Surgical Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
6
Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
7
Dept. of Horticulture Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, 1477893855 Tehran, Iran.
8
Dept. of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Parasitology, University of Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain.
9
Dept. of Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Drug Science Division, University of Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari, Italy. Electronic address: caddeoc@unica.it.

Abstract

The aim of the work was to extract, characterize, and formulate Thymus capitatus (Tymbra capitata) essential oil in phospholipid vesicles: liposomes, glycerosomes and Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs). The steam-distilled essential oil was mainly composed of carvacrol. The oil was mixed with lecithin and water to produce liposomes, or different ratios of water/glycerol or water/propylene glycol (PG) to produce glycerosomes and PG-PEVs, respectively. Cryo-TEM showed the formation of unilamellar, spherical vesicles, and light scattering disclosed that their size increased in the presence of glycerol or PG, which improved long-term stability. The formulations were highly biocompatible, and capable of counteracting oxidative stress and favouring wound repair in keratinocytes, thanks to enhanced uptake. The antibacterial activity of the oil was demonstrated against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and commensal Streptococcus sanguinis. The combination of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Thymus essential oil formulations may be useful for the treatment of oral cavity diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Glycols; Oral cavity bacteria; Oral mucosa; Phospholipid vesicles; Thymus essential oil

PMID:
30025373
DOI:
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.07.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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