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Environ Pollut. 2018 Nov;242(Pt A):643-658. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.019. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective.

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European Cancer Environment Research Institute, Brussels, Belgium; Paris V University Hospital, Paris, France.
European Cancer Environment Research Institute, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Oncology, Orebro University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Orebro, Sweden.
European Cancer Environment Research Institute, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Radiobiology, Cancer Research Institute, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava, Slovak Republic; Laboratory of Radiobiology, Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russian Federation.
European Cancer Environment Research Institute, Brussels, Belgium; Instituto Scientifico Biomedico Euro Mediterraneo, Mesagne, Italy.
European Cancer Environment Research Institute, Brussels, Belgium; Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, Albany, NY, USA; Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Faculty of Medicine, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:


Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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